OSDI 2012 has an interesting paper on the evolution of TinyOS over the past 10+ years. It looks at both technical and social decisions that contributed to the success of TinyOS. The paper also looks back and evaluates what worked, what didn’t, and why. It’s rare to see papers at technical conferences talking about the non-technical aspects of large software development projects, so should be an interesting read. You can find the paper here.
Archive for the ‘wsn-papers’ Category
Multi-hop wireless networks can provide data access for large and unconventional spaces, but they have long faced significant limits on the amount of data they can transmit. Now researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a more efficient data transmission approach that can boost the amount of data the networks can transmit by 20 to 80 percent.
“Our approach increases the average amount of data that can be transmitted within the network by at least 20 percent for networks with randomly placed nodes – and up to 80 percent if the nodes are positioned in clusters within the network,” says Dr. Rudra Dutta, an associate professor of computer science at NC State and co-author of a paper on the research. The approach also makes the network more energy efficient, which can extend the lifetime of the network if the nodes are battery-powered.
Multi-hop wireless networks utilize multiple wireless nodes to provide coverage to a large area by forwarding and receiving data wirelessly between the nodes. However, these networks have “hot spots” – places in the network where multiple wireless transmissions can interfere with each other. This limits how quickly the network can transfer data, because the nodes have to take turns transmitting data at these congested points.
Data can be transmitted at low power over short distances, which limits the degree of interference with other nodes. But this approach means that the data may have to be transmitted through many nodes before reaching its final destination. Or, data can be transmitted at high power, which means the data can be sent further and more quickly – but the powerful transmission may interfere with transmissions from many other nodes.
Dutta and Ph.D. student Parth Pathak developed an approach called centrality-based power control to address the problem. Their approach uses an algorithm that instructs each node in the network on how much power to use for each transmission depending on its final destination.
The algorithm optimizes system efficiency by determining when a powerful transmission is worth the added signal disruption, and when less powerful transmissions are needed.
The paper, “Centrality-based power control for hot-spot mitigation in multi-hop wireless networks,” is published online by the journalComputer Communications, and is in press for a print version of an upcoming issue of the journal. Pathak is lead author. The research was supported in part by the U.S. Army Research Office.
The CPS Week 2012 (Cyber-Physical Systems Week) in Beijing will include a workshop and tutorial day on April 16, 2012. Each workshop will provide an arena for presentations and discussions about a special topic of relevance to CPS Week. Each tutorial will present in-depth content in a mini-course format aimed primarily at students, researchers, or attendees from industry.
Proposals: If you are interested in organising a workshop or a tutorial at CPS Week 2012, please send a proposal (maximum 2-page PDF file) containing information about the following:
* Workshop or tutorial title,
* Abstract (maximum 200 words),
* The topic of the workshop/tutorial and how it relates to CPS Week,
* The organisers behind the workshop/tutorial including contact information, and short bio and affiliation,
* Proposed Program Committee,
* Planned review procedures,
* In the case of a workshop what the intended format will be (invited presentations, submitted presentations, panels, etc),
* Expected sponsorships (if any),
* Profile of a typical attendee (academic researcher, student or industry participant),
* A rough estimate of the number of participants,
* In case the workshop/tutorial has been previously held, provide information on the conference, date, and number of attendees.
Please send the proposal to the CPSWeek 2012 workshop and tutorial chair, Thiemo Voigt, [thiemo AT-symbol sics.se] – with subject “[CPSWEEK 2012] Workshop and Tutorial Proposal”.
Registration to workshops will be handled in connection with registration to the conference part of CPS Week. The CPS Week 2012 reserves the right to cancel non-viable workshops/tutorials.
* October 30, 2011: Submission of workshop and tutorial proposals
* November 10, 2011: Notification of acceptance
* April 16, 2012: Workshop and Tutorial day
3rd ACM Workshop On Embedded Sensing
Systems For Energy-Efficiency In Buildings
Seattle, WA, USA
November 1, 2011
Co-located with ACM SenSys 2011
The World is increasingly experiencing a strong need for energy consumption reduction and a need for efficient use of scarce natural resources. Official studies report that buildings account for the largest portion of World’s energy expenditure and have the fastest growth rate. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play a key role in enabling energy-saving systems in buildings and surrounding spaces by providing a reliable, cost-effective and extensible solution that can be placed in existing as well as new structures and can be controlled via the Internet.
* Paper submission deadline: July 30, 2011
* Notification of acceptance: August 31, 2011
* Camera Ready Due: September 15, 2011
* Workshop date: November 1, 2011
*** New this year: Demo session! ***
We solicit both papers AND demos that focus on new techniques and technologies capable of improving the global energy efficiency of buildings leveraging connected sensing systems, networks, and devices. Technical papers will be presented on November 1, 2011, and the demo session will be co-located with ACM SenSys on November 3, 2011.
For more info, go to the workshop webpage
The 9th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2011) has included an industry session to reinforce the interaction between academic research and industry. Industry papers should focus on the same topics as in the general call, however, they should adopt a different viewpoint by focusing on design, implementation, deployment, and use of realistic systems. Furthermore, industry session papers are not expected to present novel research. The types of papers the session seeks to publish include but are not limited to descriptions of:
• Real systems that have been built and deployed
• Engineering challenges in the industry context
• Deployment, usability, and maintenance issues
• Academic research challenges arising from the industry context
• Academic research that’s considered irrelevant in industry context
• Business opportunities and business failures
Submission guidelines and other info available here.
A network more powerful than the Internet, while perhaps inconceivable right now, is just one of many potentially life-changing applications for wireless sensor networks (WSN) highlighted in a special November update issue about Sensor Networks and Applications in Proceedings of the IEEE, the world’s most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science since 1913.
Published by the IEEE, the world’s largest technical professional association, additional topics of this Proceedings issue include a look at forward-thinking healthcare applications for WSN that could greatly improve electronic triage at large disasters by monitoring the injured as well as medical personnel; a conservation approach for utilizing sensor networks to conserve natural resources like electricity, gas and water, and the emerging trend of publishing real-time sensor data on the Web that opens up a wide variety of novel application scenarios.
“Sensor network research has grown dramatically in the seven years since Proceedings of the IEEE first published a special research issue on ‘Sensor Networks and Applications’ in August, 2003,” explains Neal Patwari, guest editor for the Sensor Networks and Applications edition. “The visions for sensor networks and their applications have changed as research perspectives have shifted, so as we move forward it is important to pause at this crossroad and ‘look both ways’ to better understand how these perspectives came to be and have evolved over time.”
Sensor network research of the past decade is enabling a new tier of the Internet to emerge. As presented in “IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6)in Low-Power Wireless Networks” by Jonathan Hui and David Culler, developments of the past decade in low-power networking technology as well as the Internet Protocol will allow the Internet to extend into the physical world.
“A decade ago, the sensor networking community eschewed the use of IP for low-power networking because of a perception that IP was too resource-intensive and ill-suited to the needs of sensor network applications,” explains Jonathan Hui of Cisco Systems. “Not being bound to particular network architecture allowed significant developments in low-power wireless networking, but it was difficult to incorporate such networks into an existing IP-based network infrastructure.”
The paper demonstrates that it is possible to take the recent developments of low-power wireless networking and incorporate them into IP-based network architecture.
“IPv6, the next version of the Internet Protocol designed to supersede IPv4, provides the necessary scaling and autoconfiguration properties needed to handle the expected growth of the Internet,” says Hui. “IPv6 also provides the flexibility to include sensor networking advancements in low-power communication and mesh routing within the IP framework.”
With various standards bodies, such as the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), Z-Wave and ZigBee, adopting IP within low-power wireless networking standards, the stage has been set for the next tier of the Internet.
“With physically embedded devices, the Internet will grow far beyond its current scale with new and unforeseen applications,” predicts Hui. “IP provides the necessary architecture and framework for continued innovation in the low-power wireless networking space.”
Medical care will be a major beneficiary of the research outlined in “Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare” by JeongGil Ko, Chenyang Lu, Mani B. Srivastava, John A. Stankovic, Andreas Terzis and Matt Welsh, when these applications come to fruition. For example, according to the authors, the increased portability, scalability, and rapidly deployable nature of wireless sensing systems can be used to automatically report triage levels of numerous victims and continuously track the health status of first responders at the disaster scene more effectively.
While the paper acknowledges that triage protocols for monitoring the injured in mass-casualty disasters and other emergencies already exist, the problem currently is that their effectiveness can quickly degrade with increasing numbers of victims.
“There’s a critical need to employ new WSN technology to improve how we monitor the health of first responders during mass-casualty disasters, because if the people on the ground cannot function at an optimal level due to exhaustion or health issues we must know this and intervene before they and the disaster victims suffer negative consequences,” explains JeongGil Ko of Johns Hopkins University.
With the aging of America, the use of wireless sensor technology to foster an economical and efficient way to monitor age-related illnesses could be big news now and in the future. The paper explains how wireless networked sensors could be carried on a person or embedded in people’s living spaces to collect data about personal, physical, physiological and behavioral states in real-time, everywhere.
“These ‘living records’ will help individuals increase self-awareness of their health situation and will also help caregivers obtain early intervention when problems are evident,” explains Ko.
Also explained in this medical-focused article is the potential for a WSN monitoring application that provides aging and infirm patients with assistance for motor and sensory decline.
“When these sensors are worn by patients in declining health, the sensors deliver data that enable off-site medical support teams to attempt to help them retrain declining parts like arms and legs or provide some medical or mechanical supports so the patient can sustain a safe level of independence as long as feasible,” explained Ko. “Ultimately the network sensors can help determine the right time for assistance devices like canes, crutches, walkers and wheel chairs.”
It won’t be long until “Smart Buildings” are helping us conserve both energy and money by employing WSNs that adjust instantly to optimum heating and cooling temperatures, according to a paper with environmental research ramifications. Entitled “Circuit Design Advances for Wireless Sensing Applications” by Dennis Sylvester, Gregory Chen, Scott Hanson and David Blaauw the paper provides a comprehensive review of recent work in ultra-low-power circuits with examples of specific applications for medical diagnosis, infrastructure monitoring and environmental sensing among others.
Another future-gazing example is the use of agricultural sensors implanted in the ground adjacent to where crops grow that can deliver finite measurements for water presence and help save this resource by reducing the amount of water necessary for healthy crop growth. This application is explained in the research paper “Measurement Scheduling for Soil Moisture Sensing: From Physical Models to Optimal Control” by David Shuman, Ashutosh Nayyar, Aditya Mahajan, Yuriy Goykhman, Ke Li and Mingyan Liu.
More info here.
Abstract: The most frequent infectious diseases in humans—and those with the highest potential for rapid pandemic spread—are usually transmitted via droplets during close proximity interactions (CPIs). Despite the importance of this transmission route, very little is known about the dynamic patterns of CPIs. Using wireless sensor network technology, we obtained high-resolution data of CPIs during a typical day at an American high school, permitting the reconstruction of the social network relevant for infectious disease transmission. At 94% coverage, we collected 762,868 CPIs at a maximal distance of 3 m among 788 individuals. The data revealed a high-density network with typical small-world properties and a relatively homogeneous distribution of both interaction time and interaction partners among subjects. Computer simulations of the spread of an influenza-like disease on the weighted contact graph are in good agreement with absentee data during the most recent influenza season. Analysis of targeted immunization strategies suggested that contact network data are required to design strategies that are significantly more effective than random immunization. Immunization strategies based on contact network data were most effective at high vaccination coverage.
Read the complete paper here.
More info here.
Frequency overlap across wireless networks with different radio technologies can cause severe interference and reduce communication reliability. The circumstances are particularly unfavorable for ZigBee networks that share the 2.4 GHz ISM band with WiFi senders capable of 10 to 100 times higher transmission power.
Our work first examines the interference patterns between ZigBee and WiFi networks at the bit-level granularity. Under certain conditions, ZigBee activities can trigger a nearby WiFi transmitter to back off, in which case the header is often the only part of the ZigBee packet being corrupted. We call this the symmetric interference regions, in comparison to the asymmetric regions where the ZigBee signal is too weak to be detected by WiFi senders, but WiFi activity can uniformly corrupt any bit in a ZigBee packet. With these observations, we design BuzzBuzz to mitigate WiFi interference through header and payload redundancy. Multi-Headers provides header redundancy giving ZigBee nodes multiple opportunities to detect incoming packets.
Then, TinyRS, a full-featured Reed Solomon library for resource-constrained devices, helps decoding polluted packet payload. On a medium-sized testbed, BuzzBuzz improves the ZigBee network delivery rate by 70%. Furthermore, BuzzBuzz reduces ZigBee retransmissions by a factor of three, which increases the WiFi throughput by 10%.
Read the complete paper here.
A new guide book is available both for newcomers, experienced engineers and developers in the area of IP-based smart objects/wireless sensor networks/the Internet of things. The book covers a broad area including architecture, technology, applications with a significant depth in routing protocols and software implementation.